Fitness Components

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Health Related
  • Body Composition
  • Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Muscular Strength
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Flexibility
Performance Related 
  • Power
  • Speed & Quickness
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Motor Skill


Interdependence of Performance Related Fitness Components

Conceptual Fitness Continuum

Also see Training Principles: Variation Deviations and Residual Training Effect.


Strength, Power, Speed, etc.

Strong Man Event: Truck Pull and PushStatic strength is the force that can be held in one place (force)
Static strength = Force
Example: isometrics

Strength is the weight that can be moved through a distance (work), or the ability of muscle to generate force against a resistance
Strength = Force x Distance
Example: competitive powerlifting (a misnomer)

Power is the product of a force and the speed (power). Power can be expressed by the work achieved in a unit time (asymptotic). Power is a combination of strength and speed.
Power = Force x Distance / Time
Example: Olympic style weightlifting (strength dominated power), shot put or jump (speed dominated power)

Speed is the distance traveled per unit time without regard to direction (speed)
Speed = Distance / Time
Example: sprinting, running

Velocity is the speed and direction of an entity (velocity)
Velocity = Speed and direction

Muscular Endurance = ability to perform repetitive or sustained muscular contractions against some resistance for and extended period of time.


Types of Muscular Endurance

  • Continuous tension
    • Mountain climbing
    • Tug-of-war
    • Isometric contraction
    • Weight training
      • very slow contraction
      • isolated exercises
      • compound exercises without lock out
  • Repetitive dynamic contraction
    • Running
    • Rowing
    • Weight training
      • high repetitions
      • super sets with the same muscle
  • Prolonged intense contractions coupled with short rest periods
    • Football
    • Handball
    • Weight training
      • multiple sets
      • multiple exercises for the same muscle
      • circuit training

Components are not discrete. Types of muscular endurance can be seen as a continuum of characteristics. For example, swimming requires components of continuous tension and repetitive dynamic tension. Cycling is predominately a repetitive dynamic contraction with slight continuous tension characteristics relative to running. In addition, many training protocols designed for continuous tension or repetitive dynamic contraction implement prolonged intense contractions coupled with short rest periods.


Types of Muscular Strength

Note: Components are not discrete. Types of muscular strength can be seen as a continuum of characteristics. For example, slow contractions during weight training incorporate components of isometric contraction and dynamic contraction. In addition, all power lifting exercises require certain muscles to be isometrically contracted as well as dynamically contracted.


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