Pancreatic Hormones

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Insulin

  • Pancreatic hormone, polypeptide
  • Stimulation of cellular uptake of glucose, amino acids and lipids
  • Stimulation of lipogenesis, glycogenesis, and protein synthesis
  • Increases storage of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids as glycogen, triglycerides and proteins.
  • Maintenance of normal plasma glucose levels in spite of large changes due to food intake.
    • After a meal
      • Rapid uptake of dietary glucose
        • > glucose transport
        • > glucose utilization
      • Utilization of dietary glucose
        • > glycogen synthesis
        • > glucose oxidation
        • > lipid synthesis
    • During a fast
      • Preservation of energy stores
        • < glycogen degradation
        • < gluconeogenesis
        • < lipolysis
        • < proteolysis
  • Insulin Resistance
    • Genetic factors and acquired factors
      • Primarily obesity
    • Metabolic Syndrome
      • Hyperglycemia/IGT
      • Dyslipidemia
      • Hypertension
      • Endothelial dysfunction/ Microalbuminuria
      • Hypofibrinolysis
      • Inflammation
        • Insulin has anti-inflammatory effect
        • Insulin resistance with or without obesity is associated with increase in cytokines possibly responsible for inflammation-like effects:
          • TNF alpha
          • Soluble CD40
          • VCAM/ICAM expression
          • NF-kB
          • RAGE expression.
    • Contributes to Atherosclerosis
      • McFarlane S, et al. (2001). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 86:713–718

Glucagon

  • Protein hormone produced especially by pancreatic islets of Langerhans
  • Promotes an increase of blood sugar by increasing rate of breakdown of glycogen in liver
    • Mobilization of glucose by increasing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
  • Mobilization of fatty acids by increasing lipolysis
  • Increased amino acid catabolism


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