Eating 3 meals per day is sufficient for appetite control
and food intake.
- Eating over 3 meals per day has minimal, if any, impact on
appetite control and food intake.
- Eating less than three meals per day negatively effects appetite
Leidy HJ, Campbell WW (2011). The effect of eating frequency
on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled
feeding studies. J Nutr. 141(1):154-7.
Pork, beef and chicken have similar effects on acute satiety
Charlton KE, Tapsell LC, Batterham MJ, Thorne R, O'Shea
J, Zhang Q, Beck EJ (2010).Pork, beef and chicken have similar
effects on acute satiety and hormonal markers of appetite. Appetite.
Eating a high protein (40%) fish lunch instead of beef meal
resulted in a 11% reduction in energy intake consumption 4 hours
later at the subsequent ad lib evening meal.
Borzoei S1, Neovius M, Barkeling B, Teixeira-Pinto A, Rössner
S (2006). A comparison of effects of fish and beef protein on
satiety in normal weight men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 60(7):897-902.
Vegetarian (soy) and meat based high-protein diets appear
to offer similar appetite control and satiety when protein (30%),
fat (30%), and carbohydrate (40%) are the same.
Neacsu M, Fyfe C, Horgan G, Johnstone AM (2014). Appetite
control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based
high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men: a randomized
crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 100(2):548-558
Whey protein produced a greater insulin response, reduced
appetite and decreased ad lib energy intake at a subsequent meal
compared with tuna, turkey, and egg meals.
Pal S, Ellis V (2010). The acute effects of four protein
meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean
men. Br J Nutr. 104(8):1241-8.
During an ad lib diet, an additional 14 g/day fiber
for >2 days is associated with a 10% decrease in energy intake
and body weight loss of 1.9 kg over 3.8 months. Obese individuals
may exhibit a greater suppression of energy intake and body weight
loss by a higher fiber intake in both overweight/obese and lean
Energy Intake Reduction
Body Weight Loss
Obese / Overweight
- 6% (94%)
Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB (2001). Dietary fiber
and weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 59(5):129-39.
Also see Fiber's
Effect on Insulin.
Supplementation of a high carbohydrate
food (ie: bread) with vinegar reduced postprandial responses
of blood glucose and insulin, and increased the subjective rating
of satiety. Researches also point out the potential benefits
of fermented and pickled foods since they also contain acetic
Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I (2005).
Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses
and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 59(9):983-8.
Eating a moderate fat
diet can offer longer satiety thus fewer daily feedings may be
required (as opposed to popular low fat diets of the past). Also
see Macronutrient Ratio Studies.
Himaya A, Fantino M, Antoine JM, Brondel L, Louis-Sylvestre
J (1997). Satiety power of dietary fat: a new appraisal. Am J
Clin Nutr. 65(5):1410-8.
Meal Size and Dietary Fat (Obese Subjects)
A high fat meal may lead to over-consumption of calories, particularly
when hunger is high (light lunch). This over-consumption is not
compensated for by reduced intake of calories later. Possible
interpretation: If you had a light meal, your next meal should
be low in fat. A full meal should precede a high fat ad lib meal.
Dinner (ad lib)
(64% Carb, <25% Fat)
- ~15.4% Prot
- ~50.5% Carb
- ~34.1% Fat
Low (527) Calorie
High (985) Calorie
(432.1 gm of food)
(438.1 gm of food)
Lawton CL, Burley VJ, Wales JK, Blundell JE, (1993) Dietary
fat and appetite control in obese subjects: weak effects on satiation
and satiety. International Journal of Obesity, 17, 409-416.