## Body Segment Data

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### Mean Segment Weights

Percentages of Total Body Weight
Segment Males Females Average
Whole Trunk 55.1 53.2 54.15
Thorax 20.1 17.02 18.56
Abdomen 13.06 12.24 12.65
Pelvis 13.66 15.96 14.81
Total Arm 5.7 4.97 5.335
Upper Arm 3.25 2.9 3.075
Forearm 1.87 1.57 1.72
Hand 0.65 0.5 0.575
Forearm & Hand 2.52 2.07 2.295
Total Leg 16.68 18.43 17.555
Thigh 10.5 11.75 11.125
Leg 4.75 5.35 5.05
Foot 1.43 1.33 1.38
Leg & Foot 6.18 6.68 6.43
Plagenhoef et al., 1983
Percentages of Total Body Weight
Segment Males Females Average
Head & Neck 6.94 6.68 6.81
Trunk 43.46 42.58 43.02

Upper Arm 2.71 2.55 2.63
Forearm 1.62 1.38 1.5
Hand 0.61 0.56 0.585

Thigh 14.16 14.78 14.47
Shank 4.33 4.81 4.57
Foot 1.37 1.29 1.33
de Leva, 1996

### Segment Weight Data Set Comparison

Here, you can see two sets of data from two independent sources showing the average weights for each body segment. These variations tell us that the numbers can be easily rounded as long as they are within the limits of all data sets for that particular segment. Both data sets have both male and female percentages. We have averaged out each set of data, so one set of data represent averages for both men and women.

Plagenhoef's Segment Weight data
Segment Quantity Percent Extension
Whole Trunk 1 54.15 54.15
Total Arm 2 5.33 10.66
Total Leg 2 17.55 35.10
Total Percent:     108.14
de Leva's Segment Weight data
Segment Quantity Percent Extension
Trunk 1 43.020 43.02
Total Arm 2 4.715 9.43
Total Leg 2 20.370 40.74
Total Percent:     100

Leva's List of Percentage of Body weight is 100% total, whereas Plagenhoef's data add past 108%! We are guessing either certain segments share mass with adjoining segments, or more likely, the head is considered as part of the whole trunk in Plagenhoef's data.

Leva's data were derived from young athletic Russian subjects instead of cadavers of older subjects. For this reasons we favor Leva's data. However, there may be cases, where we may need to borrow figures from Plagenhoef's data if it cannot be ascertained from Leva's data. For example, Leva's data does not break down whole trunk so we have to use Plagenhoef's to calculate the bodyweight used during exercises like weighted crunch and weighted leg hip raise.

### Segmental Center of Gravity Locations

% Segment Length (from proximal ends)
Segment Males Females Average
Head and Neck 55 55 55
Trunk 63 56.9 59.95
Thorax 56.7 56.3 56.5
Abdomen 46 46 46
Pelvis 5 5 5
Upper Arm 43.6 45.8 44.7
Forearm 43 43.4 43.2
Hand 46.8 46.8 46.8
Thigh 43.3 42.8 43.05
Leg 43.4 41.9 42.65
Foot 50 50 50
Abdomen & Pelvis 44.5 39 41.75
Plagenhoef et al., 1983
% Segment Length (from proximal ends)
Segment Males Females Average
Head & Neck 50.02 48.41 49.22
Trunk 43.10 37.82 40.46

Upper Arm 57.72 57.54 57.63
Forearm 45.74 45.59 45.67
Hand 79.00 74.74 76.87
Thigh 40.95 36.12 38.54
Shank 43.95 43.52 43.74
Foot 44.15 40.14 42.15

de Leva, 1996

### Mean Segment Lengths

Percentages of Total Body Height
Segment Males Females Average
Head and Neck 10.75 10.75 10.75
Whole Trunk 30 29 29.5
Thorax 12.7 12.7 12.7
Abdomen 8.1 8.1 8.1
Pelvis 9.3 9.3 9.3
Upper Arm 17.2 17.3 17.25
Forearm 15.7 16 15.85
Hand 5.75 5.75 5.75
Thigh 23.2 24.9 24.05
Leg 24.7 25.7 25.2
Foot 4.25 4.25 4.25
Biacromial 24.5 20 22.25
Bi-iliac 11.3 12 11.65
Plagenhoef et al., 1983
Segment Points:
Segment Proximal Distal
Head & Neck Vertex Mid-shoulder (C7)
Trunk Mid-shoulder (C7) Hip
Upper Arm Shoulder Elbow
Forearm Elbow Wrist
Hand Wrist Finger Tip
Thigh Hip Knee
Shank Knee Ankle
Foot Heel Toe

de Leva, 1996

### References

Paolo de Leva (1996) Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters . Journal of Biomechanics 29 (9), pp. 1223-1230.

 Subjects Weight (kg) Age (yrs) Height (cm) Means 100 Men 73 23.8 173.1 100 Women 61.99 19.0 173.5

Plagenhoef, S., Evans, F.G. and Abdelnour, T. (1983) Anatomical data for analyzing human motion. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 54, 169-178.

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