Thiamin

Vitamin B1, Thiamine

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Functions

  • important role in carbohydrate metabolism
  • essential for maintenance of normal digestion and appetite
  • essential for normal functioning of nervous tissue

Deficiency

Mild

  • loss of appetite
  • impaired digestion of starches and sugars
  • colitis, constipation, or diarrhea
  • emaciation

Severe

  • nervous disorders of various types
  • loss of coordinating power of muscles
  • beriberi
  • paralysis

Characteristics

  • water-soluble
  • not readily destroyed by ordinary cooking temperature
  • destroyed by exposure to heat, alkali, or sulfites
  • not stored in body

Good Sources

Natural

  • whole-grain cereals
  • seeds
  • peas, beans
  • peanuts, nuts
  • oranges
  • heart, liver, kidney
  • vegetables and fruits
  • also found in plant and animal tissues but seldom occurs in high concentration

Food Quantity mg
Bread, enriched white 1 slice 0.10
Liver, fried 3 oz 0.17
Black beans 1 cup 0.42
Sunflower seeds, dry-hulled 1/2 cup 1.65

Artificial

  • yeast
  • rice polishing
  • wheat germ

Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA)

  • Males (11 yrs. and older)
    • 1.2 mg
    • 1.2-1.5 mg
  • Females (11 yrs. and older)
    • 1.1 mg
    • 1.0-1.1 mg
  • Pregnant females
    • 1.4-1.6 mg
  • Lactating females
    • 1.5-1.7 mg
  • Children
    • 0.7-1.2 mg
  • Infants
    • 0.3-0.5 mg
  • Varied values reflect different references

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)

  • Adults (19 to 50 yrs)
    • not yet determined

Intakes above UL may lead to negative health consequences.

Supplementation

  • Not necessary, not recommended


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