Improving Program Adherence
from a fitness program is more likely if 3 factors are characteristic
of that program are not met:
- high intense exercise is related to higher drop out rates
- length of lay off after injury may be indefinite
- Time of day
- Other obligation and goals outside of exercise must be considered
- Long workouts will have less adherence
- Some may do better with 2 or 3 days a week
- Others may prefer the routine of exercising every day
- Consistency versus flexibility
- Allow for some flexibility by planning an alternative backup
time workout due to unforeseen circumstances
- Relying too heavily on backup workout times or implementing
cheat days or extended layoffs, whether planned or unplanned,
can be problematic for many beginners who have not yet established
a regular routine.
- however, they can be helpful for those that may feel certain
behavioral goals would otherwise be too restrictive.
- More moderate or progressive changes in diet and exercise
may encourage more permanent behavioral changes.
Also see Adherence Tips and
Simplistic Behavior Change Model
- A) Antecedents: what cues precede behavior
- B) Behavior
- C) Consequences: what are the consequences
Body Dismorphic Disorder
Body Dismorphic Disorder (BDD) is a compulsive obsessive ailment
characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined physical defect
in appearance or a vastly exaggerated concern about a minimal
defect. The preoccupation causes significant impairment in the
individual's life. Body Dysmorphic Disorder affects 1 in 50 people.
It was once thought that you were born with a set number of
brain cells and they just decreased as you got older. Researchers
at Salk Institute for Biological Studies discovered walking three
hours per week for three months increased many new neurons to
grow, causing a measurable increase to the size of the participant's
brains. The new neurons tended to grow around areas with well
established existing connection and replaced ones that were nonfunctioning.
The structure of the brain that grew the most was the hippocampus,
the area most involved with memory and cognition.
A Pereira, D Huddleston, Brickman A, et al. (2007). An
in vivo correlated of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult
dentate gyrus. PNAS 104(13): 5638-43.
S Colcombe, K Erickson, P Scalf, et al. (2006). Aerobic
exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. J Geron:
Med Sci 61A(11) 1166-70.
Exercise and Dementia
Vergese (2003) found no association between physical activity
and the risk of dementia. Voluntary exercise can increase levels
of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other growth
factors, stimulate neurogenesis, increase resistance to brain
insult, and improve learning and mental performance (Cotman 2002).
Cognitive and physical activities overlap, so it is not surprising
that previous studies have disagreed on the role of physical
activities. Although physical activities are important in promoting
overall health, its protective effect against dementia remains
Cotman CW, Berchtold NC (2002). Exercise: a behavioral
intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends Neurosci;
Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, et al. (2003). Leisure
Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly. N Engl J
Hedonic psychology is the study of what makes experiences
and life pleasant or unpleasant. It is concerned with feelings
of pleasure and pain, of interest and boredom, of joy and sorrow,
and of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. See following studies
and paradigm theories:
Kahneman D, Diener E, & Schwarz N. (1999). Well-being:
The foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation., p. ix