YMCA Fitness Assessment

Introduction | Health Screening | Standard Measurement | Body Composition | Cardiorespiratory Endurance | Flexibility | Strength & Muscular Endurance

Source: YMCA Fitness Testing & Assessment Manual

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Introduction

  • Rationale for Testing
    • Assess current fitness levels
    • Identify training needs
    • Select training regimens
    • Evaluate the success of the program in achieving its objectives
    • Motivate participants
  • Setting up appointment
    • Wear exercise clothing and shoes for the test
    • No food for two hours before testing
      • No caffeinated beverages
      • No alcohol for 24 hours before testing
    • No smoking for two hours before testing
    • No exercise on day of testing
  • Health Screening
  • Physical Fitness Tests
    • Standard measurements
    • Body composition
      • Sum of 4 skinfolds
      • 3 site alternative
    • Cardiovascular
      • Cycle ergometer submaximal test
      • Three minute step test
    • Flexibility
      • Sit & reach
    • Muscular strength and endurance
      • Bench press test
      • One minute half sit-up test
    • Additional test and screenings may be used at the discretion of the local YMCA Medical Advisory Committee


Health Screening

  • Identifies
    • Medical contraindications to exercise
    • Risk for disease
      • Age, symptoms, and/or risk factors
      • Possible need for medical evaluation and exercise stress test
    • Need for medically supervised exercise program
    • Other special needs
  • ACSM Risk strata
    • Low Risk
      • Younger individuals
        • men <45 years of age
        • women <55 years of age
      • Asymptomatic
      • No more than one risk factor (table 5.1)
    • Moderate Risk
      • Older individuals
        • Men >45 years of age
        • Women >55 years of age
        • or two or more risk factors (table 5.1)
    • High Risk
      • One or more signs or symptoms (table 5.2)
      • or cardiovascular, pulmonary or metabolic disease
        • Cardiac, peripheral vascular, or cerebrovascular disease
        • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, interstitial lung disease, or cystic fibrosis
        • Diabetes mellitus (types I and II), thyroid disorders, real or liver disease
  • ACSM Guidelines for screening (table 5.3)
  • Before fitness testing begins, complete:
    • Health Screening: PAR-Q (form I)
      • If "Yes", have participant get medical clearance from physician (form II & IIA)
    • Informed Consent for Fitness Testing (form III)
  • YMCA Fitness Assessment Score Sheets (men & women forms)


Standard Measurements

Vitals Calculator

  • Standing height
    • no shoes
    • nearest cm or quarter inch
  • Weight
    • shorts, t-shirt, and no shoes
    • nearest kilograms or quarter of pound
  • Resting heart rate
    • seated upright position in straight back chair
    • rested, relaxed, and comfortable
    • one minute count with stethoscope
    • Ranges
      • Average resting: 72 bpm
      • Normal resting: 50-100 bpm
      • Aerobically fit person: 50-65 bpm
      • Aerobically fit athlete: 40-50 bpm
  • Resting blood pressure
    • Position
      • seated as above
      • feet flat on floor
      • left arm resting on table with elbow flexed
      • Conversation is discouraged
    • Equipment
      • Sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, cuff
    • Procedure
      • Cuff around upper portion of left arm approximately heart level
      • Close air on bulb
      • Pump up to 200 mmHg
      • Stethoscope placed on antecubital space below the cuff
      • Slowly release air from cuff
    • Reading
      • Systolic pressure: first distinctive sound
      • Diastolic: complete disappearance of sound
      • Record in mmHg indicated on Sphygmomanometer scale
  • Vitals Calculator


Body Composition

Skinfold Test: Images from Trainer ClipArt

  • Other techniques
    • Height & Weight Tables
    • Underwater Weighing (SEE=2.5%)
    • Circumference Measurements
    • Waist Girth & Waist-to-Hip Ratio (table 6.1)
    • Body Mass Index (tables 6.2 & 6.3 s)
    • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
    • Near Infrared
  • Skinfolds (figure 6.3)
    • Abdomen, ilium, triceps, thigh
    • 4 site (table 6.6 & 6.7); 3 site (table 6.8 & 6.9)
    • Equipment
    • Procedure (page 132)
    • Sites (page 133, figures 6.4 & 6.17)
  • Norms

  Recommended Norms Obesity
Men: 16-20% 13-25% +25%
Women 19-20% 22-32% +35%

  • Target Weight (table 6.4 & 6.5)
    • Fat Weight = Bodyweight * Percent Fat
    • Lean Weight = Bodyweight - Fat Weight
    • Target Weight = LBW / (100% - Desired Percent Fat)


Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Rockport Walk Test on Treadmill

  • Field tests
    • 12 Minute Run
    • 1.5 Mile Run
    • 1 mile walk
      • Offered in YMCAs Consent for Exercise Testing Form (form III)
      • Mentioned in Description of Fitness Testing and Exercise Programs (form IIA)
      • Included in YMCA Fitness Analyst software
      • Instructions not included in YMCA Fitness Testing & Assessment Manual
    • 600 yard walk/ run
    • Quarter Mile walk (older adults)
    • Limitations
      • Environmental variations, running exertion
  • Treadmill tests
    • Bruce & Balke
    • 1 mile walk (modified for treadmill)
    • Limitations
      • Large, expensive, heavy, requires a fairly large space, not portable
      • Treadmills were not as prevalent in YMCAs as they are today
      • More difficult to take manual heart rate
  • Cycle ergometer test
  • Step tests
    • Tests
      • Harvard Step Test
      • Tuttle Step Test
      • Progressive Pulse Ratio Test (old YMCA test)
      • Ohio step test
      • YMCA step test
    • Limitations
      • Weight and height of subject
      • Measures heart rate recovery but not maximum aerobic capacity
    • Rationale
      • Use in group testing
      • Substitute for the cycle ergometer test when the amount of equipment and number of staff are insufficient for administering individual tests
    • Equipment
      • 12" (30 cm) bench
      • metronome
        • 96 bpm (4 clicks = step up, up, down, down)
        • 24 steps per minute
      • Timer
      • Stethoscope
      • Testing form
    • Procedure
      • Demonstrate stepping (figure 6.28)
        • step up, up, down, down (3 minutes)
        • explain: sit down quickly and remain still (1 min)
      • Test
        • Face subject toward block
        • Start metronome
        • Start timer when participant starts stepping
        • Check rhythm and correct if necessary
        • Inform subject time passed: 1 min, 2 min, etc.
        • Remind subject to prepare to sit quickly
          • 20 sec remaining
        • Put stethoscope in your ears
        • Turn off metronome (optional)
          • 15 seconds remaining
          • Count remaining cadence
        • Say "Last step-up, up, down, and sit"
        • Immediately place stethoscope on chest
          • Get rhythm within 5 seconds
        • Count beats for full minute
          • Begin count from 0 on a beat
        • Record beats in one minute (bpm)
  • Re-testing intervals
    • Beginners: retest in 10 to 12 wks then end of 6-12 mths
    • One year plus; no more than once a year


Flexibility

Flexibility Test

  • Flexibility Specificity
  • Lower back integrity
  • YMCA Flexibility Test (Sit & Reach)
    • Equipment
      • Yard stick, tape measure
    • Procedure
      • Warmup (previous aerobic test sufficient)
      • Stretch hamstrings
      • Demonstrate test
        • Warn against fast, jerky movements
        • Hand positions, finger tips together
        • Exhale, drop head
        • Reach and hold stretch
      • Procedure
        • Subject sits with knees straight
        • Yard stick or tap on floor between subject's legs
          • 15" (38 cm) footline, 0 mark toward
        • Instruct subject to reach and hold
        • Ensure subjects knees are held straight
        • Measure to nearest 1/2" (1 cm) or 1/4" (5 mm)
        • Score is best of 3 trials
    • Use YMCA Norms
  • AAHRERD Older Adult Flexibility Test
    • Equipment
      • 12" x 12" x 12" (30 cm) block
      • Yard stick attached to top of block
        • Projection starts at 15" (38 cm) mark
    • Use AAHPERD norms
  • Other norms
    • Alternative techniques can be used but other norms must be used

Strength and Muscular Endurance

Push-up Test

Also see:


Introduction | Health Screening | Standard Measurement | Body Composition | Cardiorespiratory Endurance | Flexibility | Strength & Muscular Endurance

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