Pete Sisco developed a couple of different training methods that make use of fast tempo, short range reps. Power Factor training is what he calls it.
I haven't actually done it myself but I talked with my physics professor about the idea once. Basically, your just trying to measure how much work your muscles do in a given amount of time. If you exert the same force in a shorter time period, your muscles have to generate more power. Physicists call it impulse.
I don't know if it exactly translates to bodybuilding but it seems to make sense. Made for an interesting conversation with my physics prof at least.
I actually wrote a short paper about the subject for that class. It only deals with the physics of it, so it might not help with physiology and how it relates to hypertrophy etc, but I can email it if your interested.