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PostPosted: Mon Feb 06, 2006 1:30 pm 
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According to Dr. Avery Faigenbaums research, which is referanced below,
among many other refrances, youth strength training increases
self-esteem, prevents sports injuries, improves sports performance and
helps develop a healthy lifestyle.

Will external resistance stunt childrens growth?

In short, the answer is no. The chances of the forces imposed by
external resistance training compressing your joints and damaging your
epiphyseal cartilage plates is minimal.

Look at it this way - Certain sport specific actions, such as jumping,
can impose a force of up to 6 times your bodyweight on your joints,
tendons, muscles et cetera.

It astounds me how people think that performing a squat with an
external resistance of around the bodyweight, if that, will stunt their
growth.

Even performing lifts biomechanically incorrect and with "too much,"
external resistance the chances of stunting your growth is still
minimal. However, incorrect biomechanics and load will cause injury,
just not to your epiphyseal cartilage plates

Below are over 100 studys stated, of which provide information, once
further researched will present results showing positive child
development through external resistance training.

AAPHERD. Physical Best Activity Guide. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics,
1999

American Academy of Pediatrics: Strength training by children and
adolescents. Pediatrics. 107: 1470-1472, 2001

American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Proceedings of the
conference on strength training and the prepubescent. Chicago: American
Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 1988

Baechle, T. & Earle, R. Essentials of Strength Training and
Conditioning, 2nd ed. Champaign, Human Kinetics, 2000.

Bailey, D., Martin, A: Physical activity and skeletal health in
adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 6: 330-347. 1994.

Bass, S. The prepubertal years. A uniquely opportune stage of growth
when the skeleton is most responsive to exercise? Sports Medicine. 30:
73-78, 2000.

Blanksby, B. Gregor, J., Anthropometric, strength, and physiological
changes in male and female swimmers with progressive resistance
training. Australian J Sport Sc 1: 3- 6, 1981.

Blimkie, C: Age- and sex- associated variation in strength during
childhood: Anthropometric, morphologic, neurological, biomechanical,
endocrinologic, genetic and physical activity correlates. In:
Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Benchmark, 1989. pp 99-163.

Blimkie, C, Rice S, Webber J, et al: Effects of resistance training on
bone mass and density in adolescent females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 25
(suppl): S48, 1993.

Blimkie, C. Resistance training during preadolescence. Issues and
Controversies. Sports Med. 15: 389-407, 1993.

Blimkie, C, Martin, J., Ramsay, D. et al. The effects of detraining and
maintenance weight training on strength development in prepubertal
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Bompa, T. Total Training for Young Champions. Champaign, IL: Human
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Inspiring America's kids to more healthful lifestyles. J Am Dietetic
Assoc 95: 816-818, 1995.

Brady T, Cahill B, Bodnar, L. Weight training related injuries in the
high school athlete. Am J Sports Med, 10: 1-5, 1982.

Brown E, Kimball R. Medical history associated with adolescent power
lifting. Pediatrics, 72: 636-644, 1983.

Bulgakova N, Vorontsov A, Fomichenko T. Improving the technical
preparedness of young swimmers by using strength training. Soviet
Sports Review, 25: 102-104, 1990.

Cahill B, Griffith E. Effect of preseason conditioning on the incidence
and severity of high school football knee injuries. American Journal of
Sports Medicine. 6: 180-184, 1978.

Caine D. Growth plate injury and bone growth: an update. Pediatric.
Exercise. Science 2: 209-229, 1990.

Cassell C., Benedict M., Specker, B. Bone mineral density in elite 7-
to 9-yr-old female gymnasts and swimmers. Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise. 28: 1243-1246. 1996.

Chu, D., Jordan, P. Plyo Play for Kids. Ather Publishing Company,
Castro Valley, CA. 1996.

Clarke D, Vaccaro P, Andresen, N. Physiologic alterations in 7- to 9-
year old boys following a season of competitive wrestling. Research Q
Exercise Sport, 55: 318- 322, 1984.

Conroy, B. , Kraemer, W. Maresh, C., Fleck, S., Stone, M., Fry, A.,
Miller, P., Dalsky, G. . Bone mineral density in elite junior Olympic
weightlifters Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 25:
1103-1109, 1993.

Corbin, C., Dale, D., Pangrazi, R. Promoting physically active
lifestyles amoung youth. J Physical Educucation, Recreation and Dance.
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DeRenne, C. Hetzler, R., Buxton, B et al. Effects of training frequency
on strength maintenance in pubescent baseball players. Journal of
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Dietz, W. Children and television. In Green, M., Hagerty, R. (eds).
Ambulatory Pediatrics IV. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1990, pp 39-41.

Docherty, D., Wenger, H., Collis, M. et al. The effects of variable
speed resistance training on strength development in prepubertal boys.
Journal of Human Movement Studies. 13: 377-382, 1987.

Dominguez, R. Shoulder pain in age group swimmers. In Erikkson, B.,
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Faigenbaum, A., Youth resistance training. President's Council on
Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest. 4 (3): 1-8, 2003.

Faigenbaum, A., Youth strength training: Benefits, risks and program
design considerations. American Journal of Medicine and Sports, 1:
243-254, 1999.

Faigenbaum, A. Preseason conditioning for high school athletes.
Strength and Conditioning. 23: 70-72, 2001.

Faigenbaum, A. Psychosocial benefits of prepubescent strength training.
Strength Conditioning. 17: 28-32, 1995.

Faigenbaum, A. Resistance training for adolescent athletes. Athletic
Therapy Today. 7(6): 30-35. 2002.

Faigenbaum, A. Strength training and children's health. Journal of
Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 72: 24-30, 2001.

Faigenbaum, A. Strength training for children and adolescents. Clinics
in Sports Medicine. 19: 593-619, 2000.

Faigenbaum, A. et al. Effects of different resistance training
protocols on upper body strength and endurance development in children.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 15(4): 459-465, 2001.

Faigenbaum, A., Chu, D. Plyometric training for children and
adolescents. ACSM Current Comment. Dec, 2001.

Faigenbaum, A., Kraemer, W. Cahill, B. et al. Youth resistance
training: Position statement paper and literature review. Strength &
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Faigenbaum, A., La Rosa Loud, R., O'Connell, J. et al. Effects of
different resistance training protocols on upper body strength and
endurance development in children. Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research. 15(4): 459-465. 2001.

Faigenbaum, A., Micheli, L. Preseason conditioning for the
preadolescent athlete. Pediatric Annalss. 29: 156-161, 2000.

Faigenbaum, A., Milliken, L., LaRosa Loud, R., Burak, B., Doherty, C.,
& Westcott, W. (2002). Comparison of 1 and 2 days per week of strength
training in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 73(4),
416-424.

Faigenbaum, A., Milliken, L., & Westcott, W. (2003). Maximal strength
testing in healthy children. Journal of Strength and Conditioning
Research. 17(1): 162-166.

Faigenbaum, A., Polakowski, C. Olympic Style lifting, Kid style.
Strength Conditioning, 1999.

Faigenbaum, A., Westcott, W. Youth Fitness. San Diego, CA: American
Council on Exercise, 2001.

Faigenbaum, A., Westcott, W., Long, C., Loud, R., Delmonico, M.,
Micheli, L. Relationship between repetitions and selected percentages
of the one repetition maximum in healthy children. Pediatric Physical
Therapy. 10: 110-113. 1998.

Faigenbaum, A., Westcott, W., Micheli, L. et al. The effects of
strength training and detraining on children. Journal of Strength &
Conditioning Research 10: 109-114, 1996.

Faigenbaum, A.,, Westcott, W. LaRosa-Loud, R et al. The effects of
different ressistance training protocols on muscular strength and
endurance development in children. Pediatrics. 104: e5. 1999.

Faigenbaum, A., Zaichkowsky, L.,Westcott, W. et al. The effects of a
twice per week strength training program on children. Pediatric
Exercise Science, 5: 339-346. 1993.

Faigenbaum, A., Zaichkowsky, L.,Westcott, W. et al. Psychological
effects of strength training on children. Journal of Sport Behavior.
20: 164-175. 1997.

Falk, B, Mor, G. The effects of resistance and martial arts training in
6 to 8 year old boys. Pediatric. Exercise. Science. 8: 48-56. 1996.

Falk, B., Sadres, E., Constantini, N. et al. The association between
adiposity and the response to resistance training among pre and
early-pubertal boys. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism.
15, 597-606. 2002.

Falk, B., Tenenbaum, G. The effectiveness of resistance training in
children. A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 22: 176-186, 1996.

Flanagan, S., Laubach, L., DeMarco, G. Effects of two different
strength training modes on motor performance in children. Research
Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 73(3): 340-344, 2002.

Fleck, S., Falkel, J. Value of resistance training for the reduction of
sports injuries. Sports Med. 3: 61-68, 1986.

Ford, H. Puckett, J. Comparative effects of prescribed weight training
and basketball programs on basketball skill test scores of ninth grade
boys. Perceptual Motor Skills, 56: 23-26. 1983.

Fripp, R, Hodgson, J. Effect of resistive training on plasma lipid and
lipoprotein levels in male adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics. 111:
926-931, 1987.

Fukunga, T., Funato, K., Ikegawa, S. The effects of resistance training
on muscle area and strength in prepubescent age. Annals Physiol
Anthrop. 11: 357-364, 1992.

Gallagher, J., DeLorme, T. The use of progressive resistance exercise
in adolescence. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 31-A (4):
847-858, 1949.

Hamill, B. Relative safety of weight lifting and weight training.
Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 8: 53-57, 1994.

Heath, G., Pratt, M., Warren, C. et al. Physical activity patterns in
American high schools students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 148:
1131-1136, 1994.

Heinonen, A. et al. (2000). High impact exercise and bones of growing
girls: A 9-month controlled trial. Osteoporosis International. 11:
1010-1017.

Hejna, W., Rosenberg, A., Buturusis, D et al., The prevention of sports
injuries in high school students through strength training. National
Strength and Conditioning Assoc J. 4: 28-31, 1982.

Hetzler, R., DeRenne, C., Buxton, B et al. Effects of 12 weeks of
strength training on anaerobic power in prepubescent male athletes.
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Holloway, J., Beuter, A, Duda, J. Self-efficacy and training in
adolescent girls. Journal of Applied. Social Psychology. 18: 699-719,
1988.

Isaacs, L., Pohlman, R., Craig, B. Effects of resistance training on
strength development in prepubescent females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 26:
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Kraemer, W., Fleck, S. Strength Training for Young Athletes. Champaign,
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Kraemer, W., Fry, A., Frykman, P. et al. Resistance training and youth.
Pediatric Exerc Sci, 1: 336-350, 1989.

LaRosa Loud, R. Take some of the work our of kids workout. Perspective.
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Lillegard, W., Brown, E., Wilson, D., Henderson, R., & Lewis, E.
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