I found this
to partly answer my own question. It doesn't cover the issues of physician prescribing steroids for use by athletes and body builders.
I'm not planning a new side business, by the way. I'm opposed to prescribing and using anabolics for non-medical uses, in the same way I'm opposed to cosmetic surgery. I support the right of people to take risks with their own health so long as adverse outcomes do not put a burden on the rest of the public, and I support the right of physicians to not participate in people taking such risks.
Yea, it is indeed a schedule 3. It can be prescribed for certain conditions. Some things like testosterone are for hormone replacement. Then there are other drugs that are more for wasting diseases.
So it is tightly controlled, but it is nothing like schedule 2, such as ADD medication.