From what I've learned talking to others and reading lots, the top three are a dunk test (most reliable, but expensive),
There problem with hydrastatic is that the research was conduced on five cadavers, dead people. There are a number of problems with this.
1) Statistics are based on large numbers. The larger the numbers uss the more accurate the results. Cutting up five cadavers does not constitute a large number.
2) These cadavers were not normal health individuals. It would have been better to cut up five normal individuals or athletes. However, there are no volunteers...:)
3) Different formulas are necessary for different ethnic groups.
Thus, while hydrostatic is regarded as the gold standard, it has flaws.
caliper 7site, caliper 3site.
Caliper readings are base on hydrostatic. Thus, they are mearly an estimate of body fat percentage.
The most accurate reading is obtained from a technician who has performed hundreds of body fat measurements.
Two other post mention using the Accumeasure Body Fat calipers. These are crap. Also, their instructions are crap. They give you a general area to take the measurements.
To obtain the most accurate measurement, you a tape measure and pen. You then measure and mark with a pen on the body a precise area to caliper.
Another post mentioned that you need to purchase the Lang calipers or another professional model. That is not necessary.
A good technician can get an accurate reading with a fairly good pair of calipers.
Callipers are about 15$ at GNC or a similar store.
The GNC calipers are crap.
I user callipers on myself and get 16%, my trainer uses callipers on me and gets 17.5%, my scale says I'm 32%...
You CANNOT get a good reading by taking the measurement on yourself. It just not possible.
Scales work off bioelectracal impedance. This method is crap.
The Slim Guide Caliper on exer.net are a great pair of calipers. However, I don't believe they provide you with the correct instruction on how to utilize them.