Kronos, I wanted to expand a little more on where i'm coming from in terms of measuring "risk".
I think everything starts with movement. I don't mean isolated joint motion, but integrated full body movement. Squatting, hinging/deadlifting/bending(all same thing), stepping, lunging, pressing, reaching, and rolling. You can dig a lot deeper if you go into rolling and crawling patterns which we develop before we have develop the ability to stand up or walk.
This all just refers to "function" we instinctively learn. We are not taught any of this. This is a very vast area with a lot of notable experts and trains of thought, and a lot of research into different areas of it.
There are a few different ways of measuring movement. Over the years i've swayed towards Gray Cook. The reason is that his methods "comply" with the methods of other experts from other related fields. So, McGills stuff works with Cooks, Boyles works with Cooks, Cresseys works, Sahrmanns works with it - even a lot of what you read about best technique from from powerlifting experts fits with all of these. For me, Cooks way of viewing things pulls it all together and makes everything straight forward.
If you out train your capacity to move, you will be in pain, if not now, you will be eventually. Measure and monitor your movement and you then know what you should and should not consider as training options.
Cooks first book, Athletic Body in Balance has a "self movement screen" in it, which is designed for the health conscious lifter to screen himself, find dysfunctional patterns, make appropriate training modifications to, 1: reduce your immediate risk and, 2: fix the pattern. His latest book, Movement, goes into far more detail, gives you the full screen (and more), plus all the scoring criteria.
BTW, both books have loads of references.
For example, if your "In Line Lunge" has a low score, you stop loading one leg as you will only build strength/fitness on top of an underlying dysfunctional. So you remove the things that could be making things worse, and you add things that will help restore the pattern.
If a pattern presents pain, you get a zero on all screens and you seek a medical professional qualified to deal with the pain. This is quite crucial for trainers - if a pattern presents pain, the client is already injured, and they don't need a trainer, they need a clinician. Therefore if a trainer doesn't screen, then he may not even be aware that a client IS injured already.
I get a sneaking suspicion that I've given the impression that i'm a "no pain no gain", guy (cheeky reference to a facebook comment). I have actually lost out on a few clients because I refused to train them before they seen my (or any) physiotherapist. The screen revealed pain, so they were already injured. I am very strict about pain.
So your movement patterns determine what's available and what isn't. You can only add in the things you removed once you have cleaned up the dysfunctional pattern, re tested it, and scored better in it. Then the devil is in the progression. If I remove back squats from someones program who shouldn't squat, when I add it back in, we don't go straight to back squats. It would be, for example, goblet squats, front squats, box squats, back squats.
Remember, too, that your CNS governs everything, especially pain. The study of pain in itself is a massive subject. Pain is created in the brain - NOT by "damaged" joints. Joints don't feel pain. Movement at a fundamental level is representative of your brains control of the body. It's a test of neuromuscular efficiency, not just stability or mobility. Compensation in movement tells us that "something" isn't right with the system, and we're at risk if we do much more. It's like "limp home mode" in your car when you have an engine fault. There is risk, and if you don't identify it before you add more miles, you're likely to end up with a serious problem.
So, we can measure risk by measuring movement. It definitely won't be perfect but it is evolving (and has been for years, btw). It's the best we have at the moment. The reason i buy into it so much is because it helps us achieve better performance (S & C), the same principles also help us get out of pain (rehab world), and it adheres to "biomechanics", too, and most of all, it considers the brain.
Although I'm quite young, i've had a couple of muscle tears, a couple of tendon tears, a ruptured ligament, damaged cartilage, and various bouts of pain. I remember thinking I just had the same injury appearing in different locations of my body. I actually think that's one of the smartest conclusions i've ever came to because, when I worked to fix my "movement", everything started to miraculously disappear, then I got stronger than I'd ever been, and this is how the movement obsession began. This is when I wanted to "give back", and when I decided to become a trainer. These are the same principles I have based everyones training on (Movement).