Hello to anybody who reads this. This post right here will consist of water soluble & fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. If you are looking for dosages and info for these substances then this post could be very useful to you. Most of the dosages follow along the guidelines set by the National Academy of sciences and are based on full grown males & females within the ages of 19-70 y.
*Note:* Unless you are under the supervision of a licensed physician do not take dosages higher than what is listed below. Do not think that by taking even a higher dosage than the ranges that are provided that it will offer any additional health benefits. One of the ways the body stays in a state of homeostasis through the use of vitamins and minerals and taking high dosages of one vitamin can throw off the balance leading to adverse health effects. Do not follow these guidelines if you are pregnant, lactating or do not fall within the listed age bracket of 19-70 y.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Dosage: 90 - 2000 mg, No established toxicity
Info: It's an Antioxidant, needed for healthy gums, enhances immune function, reduce cholesterol level, lower blood pressure, prevent arteriosclerosis, promotes healthy cell development, strengthens the walls of capillaries, prevents blood clotting, promotes proper calcium absorption. Vitamin C comes in different forms, the one you want is Ester-C. Esterfied Vitamin C enters cells 4x faster, is more effectively moved into the cells, and stays in the cells longer than than its standard acidic form.
Assimilates best with: Bioflavonoid, calcium, and magnesium
Antagonist(s): Alcohol, Antacids, Birth Control, Anabolic Steroids. Air, heat, water, long periods of storage, overcooking, and processing.
Vitamin P (Bioflavonoid)
Dosage: 200 - 500 mg
Info: Enhances absorption of Vitamin C, used in the treatment of sports injuries, used a pain reliever, lessen symptoms of prolonged bleeding, promote blood circulation, work as an antibiotic, used in production of bile, lowers blood cholesterol, used in the treatment & prevention of cataracts. Bioflavonoid is found naturally inside foods we eat. This is in part why Vitamin C tends to absorb better when found naturally than found in pill form. It is necessary that this be taken with Vitamin C or it won't absorb.
Assimilates best with:Highly recommend Vitamin C, also calcium
Antagonist(s): None found
The B-Complex these would be categorized as the vitamins that have B-1 up to B-12 all in one capsule. Also you would typically find varying amounts of Choline, Inositol, PABA, and Biotin inside the complex depending on the brand you buy.
Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin)
Dosage: 1.2 - 100 mg
Info: Enhance blood circulation, blood formation, and metabolism of carbohydrates, required for nervous system function, used to manufacture HCL.
Assimilates best with: B Complex, Manganese, and Vitamins C & E
Antagonist(s): Destroyed by cooking, alkaline substances, poorly absorpted if coupled with high amounts of refined foods. Alcohol, phenytonin, sulfa drugs, antibiotics, caffeine, oral contraceptives. High carbohydrate diet increases need for this vitamin.
Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin)
Dosage: 1.3 - 100 mg
Info: Required in the body to use oxygen, used in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, & amino acids. Needed to activate and absorb Vitamin B-6, absorption of iron, eases watery eye fatigue, treatment for cataracts, used when protein intake is high, helps to create niacin.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex and Vitamin C. Try to have the same dosage of B-2 as B-6.
Antagonist(s): Sensitive to light, exercise, antibiotics, alcohol.
Vitamin B-3 (Niacin (AKA: Nicotinic Acid) & Niacinamide)
Dosage: 16 - 50 mg Niacin, 50 - 100 mg Niacinamide
Info: Help to release the energy of Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fats. Proper Blood Circulation, healthy skin, nervous system function, improves cholesterol levels, used as a memory enhancer, in production of HCL and is a natural detoxifier. There are two different forms Niacin and "flush free" B-2 which is referred to as Niacinamide. The more effective form is Niacin but comes with side effects that may give you a "flushed" feeling.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex and Vitamin C
Antagonist(s): B-3 is destroyed when foods containing this vitamin are cooked in water.
Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid)
Dosage: 5 - 100 mg
Info: Plays a role in the secretion of hormones (ex: Cortisone), which in turn regulates the metabolism. Helps fight allergies, beneficial in the maintenance of nerves, muscles, and skin. Involved in the metabolism of Carbohydrates, fat, protein, and also the creation of lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin. Known as the "Anti-Stress" vitamin.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex, Vitamins A, C, & E
Antagonist(s): Roasting or Milling of food containing this vitamin will destroy it. Acids or alkaline substances will also destroy it and by canning.
Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine)
Dosage: 1.3 - 100 mg
Info: Assists the immune system, involved in the growth of new cells, used in the metabolism of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Helps control mood and behavior, promotes red blood cell production, prevents eczema, dandruff, and psoriasis. Balances sodium and potassium levels, has links to cancer immunity, may help diminish PMS symptoms in women, fights the formation of the toxin homocysteine.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex, Vitamin C, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Zinc, Linoleic Acid, and Fatty Acids. Try to have the same dosage of B-6 as B-2.
Antagonist(s): Light, Cooking, Diuretics, Cortisone
Vitamin B-9 (Folic Acid, Folate, Folacin, Pteroylglutamic Acid (PGA))
Dosage: 400 - 1000 mcg
Info: Required for DNA synthesis and cell growth, "brain food", important for red blood cell formation, division and replication. It also assists in digestion, and the nervous system. Is required for protein metabolism therefore it is involved in the formation of amino acids. Helps to improve mental and emotional health, which would include treating depression and anxiety.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex & Vitamin C
Antagonist(s): Light, Alcohol, Heat, & Storage for long periods of time
Vitamin B-12 (Methylcobalamin & Cyanocobalamin)
Dosage: 2.4 - 200 mcg or higher
Info: Required for the manufacture and maintenance of red blood cells, stimulates appetite, promotes growth, and energy release. Used to prevent mental deterioration, speeds up mental processes, said to provide protection against caner and allergies, is also used in the metabolism of fats, protein, and carbohydrates. If you notice when you buy straight vitamin B-12 you get a dosage much higher than the listed 200 mcg, that is because the vitamin is poorly absorbed into the bloodstream. To enhance absorption, buy a vitamin with vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin, it is considered to be the active form of the vitamin.
Assimilates best with: Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, & Vitamin C
Antagonist(s): Excessive Alcohol, Laxatives, & Antacids
PABA (Para-Aminobenzoic Acid)
Dosage: 10 - 50 mg, but has been used in doses ranging over 1000mg (therapeutically)
Info: Used to improve protein use throughout the body, aids in the manufacture of Folic Acid and also aids with treating vertigo, linked to hair re-growth and reversing graying of hair, typically used in sunscreen products.
Assimilates best with: Vitamin C and B-Complex
Antagonist(s): Antibiotic use & Sulfa Drugs
Biotin (Vitamin H)
Dosage: 30 - 800 mcg
Info: Used in cell growth, production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats and proteins, plays a role in the Krebs cycle, needed for healthy skin, hair, nerve tissue, and bone marrow. Helps maintain steady blood sugar level, assists with muscle pain, helps with transfer of carbon dioxide.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex, Vitamin C, and Sulfur.
Antagonist(s): Not easily destroyed, excessive egg consumption (avidin), antibiotics, sulfa drugs, & saccharin.
Dosage: 50 - 200 mg
Info: Reduce cholesterol levels, promote healthy hair and growth, protects the health and the function of cell membranes in places like the brain, bone marrow, eyes, and intestines. Used as a filler for a specific recreational drug.
Assimilates best with: Vitamins E & C, B Complex, Linoleic acid (Omega-6), and equal levels of Choline
Dosage: 550 - 3500 mg
Info: Aids in weight control, help control cholesterol levels, prevents gallstones, keeps cell membranes healthy, very useful in the maintenance of the nervous system, helps with memory and learning ability, can help fight infections, used in the kidneys for water balance, aids nerve impulse transition, liver function, gallbladder regulation, lecithin (group of various lipids) production.
Assimilates best with: Same dosage as Inositol, B-Complex, Vitamin A, and Linoleic Acid
Antagonist(s): Processing, storage, and cooking
1. When taking B-Complex (or Vitamin B-2) you will find that no matter what you do, your urine turn a neon yellow color.
2. During moments of dieting and/or coupled with periods of intense exercise, you may find that these vitamins will be depleted very quickly due to their water solubility. That can be why you feel sluggish after the first couple weeks of dieting.
3. This list only consists of water-soluble vitamins.
Dosage: 5000 - 10000 IU Vitamin A, 5000 - 25000 IU Carotenoids w/ Beta-Carotene
Info: It's an antioxidant, assists in immune function, protects against carcinogens, reduces risk of cancer, aids in the digestive and urinary tract, enhances the sense of taste, aids in a maintenance of skin and wrinkles, general eye wellness. Carotenoids are a class of compounds related to vitamin A. Some act as antioxidants & precursors to Vitamin A. There are over 600 different carotenoids identified so far.
Assimilates best with: Vitamins C, D, E, & B Complex, Choline, EFA's, Calcium, Phosphorus, & Zinc.
Antagonist(s): Sunlight, High Temps, Copper and Iron cooking utensils, do not soak foods containing Vitamin A in water for long periods of time.
Vitamin D (D-2 & D-3)
Dosage: 200 - 2000 IU
Info: Improves absorption of calcium, assists in bone growth, promotes strong teeth. Three different forms of the Vitamin D, D-2 (ergocaliciferol), D-3 (colecaliciferol), D-5. D-2 is found inside of foods we eat & D-3 is synthesized in the skin when we come in contact with sunlight. Between the two D-3 is considered the natural form & the most active. Take with calcium to avoid toxicity.
Assimilates best with: Vitamin A, Choline, EFAs, Calcium, Creatine, & Phosphorus
Dosage: Minimum 15 - 1000 IU
Info: Is an antioxidant, prevents degenerative diseases (ex: heart disease, stroke, arthritis, diabetes, cancer), prevents blood clots, prevents blood clots, increase of stamina and endurance is associated with use. Helps keep skin looking younger, heals cuts, prevents scar tissue formation, said to help with eczema, shingles, skin ulcers, and cold sores. There are four forms of the vitamins, d-alpha-, d-gamma-, d-delta-, l-alpha-tocopherol. D-alpha is considered to be the natural form while L-alpha is the synthetic form. The L form gets excreted so your 400 IU dl-alpha-tocopherol Vitamin E pills only equate to 200 IU of actual usable Vitamin E.
Assimilates best with: Vitamin C & A, EFAs Selenium, B-Complex, Calcium, & Manganese
Antagonist(s): Milling, Cooking, Freezing, Long periods of storage, Inorganic Iron supplements.
Dosage: Minimum 120 - 500 mcg
Info: Involved in various processes that deal with blood clotting, used in bone formation and repair, assisting in converting glucose to glycogen, may be wise to take if dealing with osteoporosis/ bone loss. Use a natural form of K.
Assimilates best with: Fats for better absorption. Three forms of Vitamin K, K-1 (phylloquinone or phytonactone), K-2 (menaquinones), & K-3 (menadione). K-1 is derived from plants, K-2 is created by intestinal bacteria, & K-3 is synthetic. If you want to supplement Vitamin K get it from plant supplements such as alfalfa or green leafy veggies. You will readily find K-1 and K-2 available, K-2 on average is about 5-7x as expensive as its K-1 variation.
Antagonist(s): Do not take with Vitamin C & E or Antibiotics
This list only consists of fat-soluble vitamins.
Calcium (carbonate, citrate, gluconate, lactate, dolomite, oyster shell, bone meal)
Dosage: Minimum 1200 - 2500 mg, take in 500 mg dosages to maximize absorption
Info: Required for the formation and maintenance of bones, teeth, and gums. Needed for blood clotting, used to keep many body functions at homeostasis such as heartbeat & nerve impulses. Prevents muscle cramps, aids with muscle growth, required for muscle contraction, lowers cholesterol, provides energy, breaks down fats, healthy skin. It is possible that low blood calcium can cause high blood pressure.
There are several different forms of calcium, the most common is calcium carbonate. Carbonate isn't the most bioavailable form of calcium because it requires extra amounts of stomach acid for it to be absorb, so it would be wise to take with or after a meal. Calcium Citrate has a higher rate of absorption since it does not require stomach acid for it to absorb. But the catch is that it is more expensive to produce and requires that you take more off it to get the same amount of elemental calcium found in the carbonate form. Also if you have issues with acid reflux or heart burn etc then it may be wise not to supplement with calcium citrate since it would only make symptoms worse. Calcium Gluconate and lactate contain a very low amount of elemental calcium so you would have to more of it to get the same effects of carbonate form. Dolomite, oyster shell, and bone meal are natural forms of calcium that may contain trace amounts of heavy metals such as lead so it would be wise to avoid these forms.
Assimilates best with: Vitamin D & A, Magnesium, and Amino Acids *
Antagonist(s): Phosphorous, Alcohol, Sodium, White Flour, & Coffee deplete this mineral. Too much fats, proteins, sugars, impede absorption.
Dosage: 500 - 3600 mg
Info: Forms parts of Hydrochloric Acid (Stomach Acid), controls the flow of fluid into blood vessels, and regulates acidity of the body.
Assimilates best with: You find this inside of everything you consume except pure water.
Antagonist(s): Anytime you excrete fluids from the body including vomiting & diarrhea.
Magnesium (oxide, taurate, citrate)
Dosage: Minimum 420 - 1000 mg
Info: Aids in the formation of bones & teeth, assists in absorption of calcium & potassium, helps prevents depression, dizziness, muscle twitching, calcification of soft tissue(s), cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, certain cancers, & possibly reduce cholesterol. Known as a natural relaxant.
There is a few different forms; magnesium oxide is the most common form and cheapest but doesn't absorb very well. A step up would be magnesium citrate but like calcium it is more expensive to produce and can worsen acid reflux/heartburn if you are already susceptible. Magnesium taurate would be the best option since it will absorb the easiest, but is also the most expensive form.
Assimilates best with: Calcium, Phosphorus, B-Complex, Potassium, and Vitamin C & D.
Antagonist(s): Alcohol, Diuretics, high levels of Zinc, Vitamin D & Calcium, excretion of any fluids, foods high in oxalic acid, any fat soluble Vitamins, Flouride.
Dosage: Minimum 700 - 3000 mg
Info: Involved heavily in bone and teeth formation, many metabolic processes, kidney function, cell growth, and contraction of the heart muscle. Very rare to be deficient of this element.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex, Vitamin D, Sodium, Iron, and Manganese
Dosage: 99 - 500 mg
Info: Needed in growth, building muscle, transmission of nerve impulses. Works hand in hand with sodium in body functions.
Assimilates best with: Sodium & Vitamin B-6
Antagonist(s): Canning of Foods, tobacco, caffeine, licorice, stress, excretion of fluids.
Dosage: Don't worry about it, you are already getting too much as is.
Info: Electrolytes & required to produce hydrochloric acid (HCL).
Assimilates best with: Potassium, Calcium, Vitamin D, and Sulfur
Antagonist(s): Excretion of fluids
Dosage: 850 to over 3500 mg, found in many foods we eat (ex: protein)
Info: Used to detoxify the body, assists immune system, fight the effects of aging including illnesses associated with aging, used in the synthesis of collagen, is found in hair, nails, and skin.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex
Antagonist(s): Heat and Moisture
1. Aim for twice as much potassium than sodium.
2. This list only consists of minerals.
3. The difference between minerals and trace elements is that minerals are required in larger amounts for survival and optimal health vs the much smaller amounts such as copper.
Dosage: 3 - 20 mg
Info: Enhances the bodies ability to use and store calcium, magnesium, Vitamin D in the body. Assists in brain function and recognition. Possible reduction in arthritis symptoms. Helps build muscle through enhancement of natural steroid compounds.
Assimilates best with: Manganese, Calcium, B-Complex
Antagonist(s): None Found
Dosage: Minimum 35 - 400 mcg
Info: Chromium is needed for energy, controls insulin level (or stable blood sugar level), required for fat metabolism, typically combined with GTF (glucose tolerance factor), assists with regulating cholesterol level.
Assimilates best with: B-Complex, Cysteine, Glycine, and Glutamic acid.
Antagonist(s): High phosphorus contained foods impede absorption, processed foods, aging.
Dosage: ??, Good diet should suffice
Info: Required for the manufacture of RBC, prevents anemia
Assimilates best with: B-Complex
Antagonist(s): None Found
Dosage: Minimum 0.9 - 10 mg, can cause nausea at higher dosages
Info: Required for formation of hemoglobin, bone formation, RBCs, noradrenaline, pigmentation of your hair. Aids in the formation of collagen & elastin.
Assimilates best with: Cobalt, Iron, Zinc and Folic Acid
Antagonist(s): Large amounts of Vitamin C, Zinc, & Fructose
Dosage: Minimum 150 - 1100 mcg, can find inside of kelp whether in pill form or found in nature
Info: Used in the production of thyroid hormones, aids with the prevention of certain cancers, help metabolize excess body fat, important for mental and physical development.
Assimilates best with: Iron, Manganese, and Phosphorus
Antagonist(s): None Found
Iron (gluconate, fumarate, citrate, protein chelate, sulfate)
Dosage: Minimum 8 - 45 mg
Info: Used in the production of myoglobin and hemoglobin, needed for RBC oxygenation, essential for production of many enzymes, healthy immune system, and energy production. There are various forms of Iron, a few are fumarate, gluconate, and sulfate. If you decide to supplement with iron (which isn't recommended unless you are anemic) then choose a natural form which would be protein chelate or gluconate, forms that are considered inorganic such as sulfate oxidize vitamin E depleting it from the body. Do not take iron if you have any sort of bacteria infection, you will make the infection worse by promoting growth of the bacteria. Out of any of the minerals Iron is the hardest for the body to excrete which is why it isn't recommended to take via supplemental minerals, toxicity or death can occur through accidental overdose.
Assimilates best with: Vitamin C & A, Copper, Manganese, B-Complex, Molybdenum
Antagonist(s): Tea & Coffee at mealtimes, should not be taken with Calcium, Zinc, or Vitamin E.
Dosage: Minimum 2.3 - 11 mg
Info: Allows the body to utilize Vitamin C & E, B1, Biotin, & Choline. Helps manufacture fats, sex hormones, breast milk, synovial fluid, bone growth, cartilage, nerves, immune system. Possibly neutralizes free radicals, used for normal nervous system function, prevents diabetes, important for brain function.
Assimilates best with: Vitamin E, B-Complex, Calcium, Iron, & Phosphorus
Antagonist(s): Large amounts of Calcium, Zinc, Cobalt, Soy Protein all impede absorption. Milling and fertilizers destroy the element.
Dosage: Minimum 45 - 2000 mcg
Info: Assists in the breakdown of sulfite toxins in the body, prevents cavities, mouth & gum disease, anemia. Has possible antioxidant properties, helps the body fight nitrosamines, metabolizes fats & carbohydrates.
Assimilates best with: None Found
Antagonist(s): Excess copper, tungsten, & sulfates deplete the element. Heat and moisture change the chemical make up in its supplemented form.
Dosage: Minimum 55 - 400 mcg
Info: Antioxidant, rids the body of toxic elements (ex: lead), assists in fighting infection, energy production, fights cold sores & shingles, helps prevent cancer, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, required for pancreatic function and tissue elasticity, shown to keep blood from being as sticky. When combined with vitamin e and zinc may help relieve an enlarged prostate.
Assimilates best with: Should be taken with Vitamin E & A & Beta-Carotene since they work synergistically together as a powerful antioxidant(s).
Antagonist(s): None Found
Dosage: 30 mg
Info: Aids with the health of bones, cartilage, tendons, and artery walls, hair, nails, skin. Assists immune system function, aids with the treatment of gum disease, allergies, heartburn. Plays a major role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Assimilates best with: Iron, Phosphorus, Boron, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, and Potassium.
Antagonist(s): None Found
Dosage: Minimum 11 - 100 mg
Info: Needed for a healthy immune system, helps fight skin ailments. Required for the health of skin, nails, and hair. Aids in the growth and maintenance of muscle. Required for protein synthesis, aids with detoxifying the liver, zinc lozenges can helps reduce the duration of colds. Enhances the sense of taste and smell.
Assimilates best with: Copper, Boron, Calcium, Phosphorous, Selenium, Vitamin A & E, and B-Complex.
Antagonist(s): Excessive sweating, grains have an unabsorbable form of the element. Excretion of any fluids will deplete zinc levels in the body.
1. You do not want to supplement more than 50 mg a day of Iron. Iron does not get easily excreted from the body and having too much can occur easily if you are not careful which will lead to adverse health effects at high enough amounts. If you are shopping around for a multivitamin and are concerned about iron toxicity then buy a vitamin that is without iron.
2. Relatively equal amounts of Iron to Zinc should be consumed, but not at the same time since they interfere with each others activity and absorption.
3. This list consists only of trace elements.
To clear up any possible misconceptions I will explain what each of these groups mean.
Name of Substance (alternate name)
Dosage - The amount that you would take in a day for supplementation. Do not take dosages higher than the listed upper limit.
IU - International Unit, Mcg/µg - Microgram, Mg - Milligram, G - Gram
Info - This would be the typical thing that this vitamin would do for you. This might give reasons for wanting to start supplementation.
Assimilates Best With - These are the substances that stack best with that specific vitamin or mineral/element. It's best to take these with the vitamin or mineral/element because it allows for better absorption, can work in conjunction with them, and allows for greater effectiveness when it’s in the body.
Antagonist(s) - These would be substances that would do more harm than good. Generally they would destroy the element, impede absorption, and/or deplete the substance from the body.
Last edited by ironmaiden708 on Sun Feb 22, 2009 10:52 am, edited 6 times in total.