Types of Warm-ups

  • Passive: increase temperature by external means
  • General: increase temperature using non-specific body movements
  • Movement Specific: increase temperature using very similar biomechanics used in subsequent, more strenuous activity.
    • best option since it provides rehearsal of activity or event

Music Walking Treadmill

Warm-up Benefits

  • Rehearsal of movement
  • Elevation of body temperature
    • increase dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin and myoglobin
    • lowering of activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions
    • increase muscle blood flow
    • reduction in muscle viscosity
    • increase sensitivity of nerve receptors
    • increase speed of nervous impulses
  • Reduces incidence and likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries
  • Supplies adequate blood flow to heart
    • warm up of two minutes prior to sudden exertion can decrease relative myocardial hypoxia and decrease blood pressure during exercise.
    • warm up may precede strenuous exercise by as much as 10 to 15 minutes and still decreased arrhythmias indicative of inadequate oxygen to the heart.
    • warm up may be particularly crucial for those with a degree of underlying coronary artery disease.
      • although the original study examined men ages 21 to 52 years who were asymptomatic to heart disease

Banard RJ, et al. (1973). Cardiovascular responses to sudden strenuous exercise - heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG. J Appl Physiology. 34:833.

Shellock, FG & Prentice, WE (1985). Warming-Up and Stretching for Improved Physical Performance and Prevention of Sports-Related Injuries, Sports Medicine, 2: 267-278.


Weight Training Warm-up

Barbell Deadlift

  • Benefits of specific warm up
    • Muscles and joints can be warmed up with the exact mechanics which will be performed during the workout set(s)
      • muscle and joint is less susceptible to injury
      • muscle can contract with greater intensity
      • motor skill and breathing can be rehearsed
    • Specific warm up can be considered more effective for weight training than general warmup
      • Example of general warmup: jumping jacks, aerobic warm up, etc.
  • Typically 12 to 15 reps performed before workout set
    • Approximately 50% of workout weight (10 RM)
    • 30 seconds to 3 minutes rest before workout set
    • Example:
      • Warmup set: 12 Reps x 65 lbs (easy)
      • Workout set: 9 Reps x 130 lbs (very hard)
    • A second warm up may be performed on heavy movements or if the muscles and joints involved may be more susceptible to injury (based on past experience)
      • Example: squats, deadlift, and possibly bench press
    • No warm up set is required for high repetition exercises
      • Example: 20-30 on abdominal training
      • high repetition sets are not as intense and serves as a specific warm-up in themselves.
  • Progressive warmup sets
    • Appropriate for intermediate to advanced trainees performing low rep, multiset training for basic exercises
    • Example:
      • 5 reps x 135 lbs
      • 5 reps x 185 lbs
      • 5 reps x 225 lbs
      • 5 reps x 275 lbs
      • 5 reps x 295 lbs

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