Eating 3 meals per day is sufficient for appetite control and food intake.
- Eating over 3 meals per day has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake.
- Eating less than three meals per day negatively effects appetite control.
Leidy HJ, Campbell WW (2011). The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies. J Nutr. 141(1): 154-7.
Pork, beef and chicken have similar effects on acute satiety and appetite.
Charlton KE, Tapsell LC, Batterham MJ, Thorne R, O'Shea J, Zhang Q, Beck EJ (2010).Pork, beef and chicken have similar effects on acute satiety and hormonal markers of appetite. Appetite. 56(1): 1-8.
Eating a high protein (40%) fish lunch instead of beef meal resulted in a 11% reduction in energy intake consumption, 4 hours later at the subsequent ad lib evening meal.
Borzoei S1, Neovius M, Barkeling B, Teixeira-Pinto A, Rössner S (2006). A comparison of effects of fish and beef protein on satiety in normal weight men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 60(7): 897-902.
Vegetarian (soy) and meat based high-protein diets appear to offer similar appetite control and satiety when protein (30%), fat (30%), and carbohydrate (40%) are the same.
Neacsu M, Fyfe C, Horgan G, Johnstone AM (2014). Appetite control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 100(2): 548-558
Whey protein produced a greater insulin response, reduced appetite and decreased ad lib energy intake at a subsequent meal compared with tuna, turkey, and egg meals.
Pal S, Ellis V (2010). The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men. Br J Nutr. 104(8): 1241-8.
During an ad lib diet, an additional 14 g/day fiber for >2 days is associated with a 10% decrease in energy intake and body weight loss of 1.9 kg over 3.8 months. Obese individuals may exhibit a greater suppression of energy intake and body weight loss by a higher fiber intake in both overweight/obese and lean subjects.
|Energy Intake Reduction||Body Weight Loss|
|Obese / Overweight||-18% (82%)||2.4 kg|
|Lean People||- 6% (94%)||0.8 kg|
Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB (2001). Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 59(5): 129-39.
Also see Fiber's Effect on Insulin.
Supplementation of a high carbohydrate food (ie: bread) with vinegar reduced postprandial responses of blood glucose and insulin, and increased the subjective rating of satiety. Researchers also point out the potential benefits of fermented and pickled foods since they also contain acetic acid.
Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I (2005). Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 59(9): 983-8.
Himaya A, Fantino M, Antoine JM, Brondel L, Louis-Sylvestre J (1997). Satiety power of dietary fat: a new appraisal. Am J Clin Nutr. 65(5): 1410-8.
Meal Size and Dietary Fat (Obese Subjects)
|A high fat meal may lead to over-consumption of calories, particularly when hunger is high (light lunch). This over-consumption is not compensated for by reduced intake of calories later. Possible interpretation: If you had a light meal, your next meal should be low in fat. A full meal should precede a high fat ad lib meal.||Dinner (ad lib)|
(64% Carb, <25% Fat)
|Low (527) Calorie||681 kcal||1470 kcal||1026 kcal|
|High (985) Calorie||672 kcal||1202 kcal||937 kcal|
(432.1 gm of food)
(438.1 gm of food)
Lawton CL, Burley VJ, Wales JK, Blundell JE, (1993) Dietary fat and appetite control in obese subjects: weak effects on satiation and satiety. International Journal of Obesity, 17, 409-416.