Post Pubescent Sports Conditioning Outline

Specialization Stage (~15-18 year olds)

Motor Skills

Post Pubescent

  • Skill perfection
    • Rolls and rotations, ball throws, catching games, relays
  • Complex spatial orientation
    • Jumps with turns, games, jumps over objects, rolls, jumps
  • Balance, body control, and body awareness
    • Rolls and turns, jumps over objects and turns, variations of body balance, games, relays
  • Anticipation improvement
    • Rolls and turns, throws and catches with partner, balance exercise, games
  • Analysis and reorientation
    • Rolls and turns of 180°-360°, ball throws and catches after roll, games, relays

Strength

  • Implement either full body workout or 2 day split progressive weight training program
  • Utilize various rep ranges based on weight training experience and specific training goals within periodized program
    • < 1 year training
      • 3 x week
      • Repetition ranges
    • > 1 year training
      • 2 x week
      • Undulating workloads (>1 year training)
    • See Periodized Training for rep ranges for different experience levels at various phases
  • Consider deloading strength training first week of every month
    • Assists in long term recovery and reduction of injury
    • The beginning of each month new exercises are introduced to the program
      • Focus learning the exercise with strict form
      • Use workout resistances that allow prescribed reps to be performed without struggling on last rep, stopping short at least one or two reps.

Power

  • Fully incorporate during Early Competitive periods
  • Athletes over 2 years training
    • Introduction of Olympic Weightlifts
      • Thought to be effective for many sports requiring upward power
        • Eg: Mixed Martial Arts, Rugby, Soccer, Volleyball, Ice Hockey, Football, Basketball
      • May not be necessary for some sports
        • Eg: Golf, Baseball, Tennis, Boxing, Lacrosse, Distance Running, and Swimming
      • Bompa (2016) does not recommend Olympic-style Weightlifting for athletes 18 and younger however other strength and conditioning experts advocate their use (Faiganbaum & Palakowski 1999).
      • Progression
        • Incorporating progressions of component lifts during late preparation phase
        • Hang Power Clean and/or Hang Power Snatch can be introduced during competition phase
        • Power Snatch, Snatch, Power Cleans, Cleans, Clean & Jerk, and Power Clean & Jerk can be performed one earlier lifts are mastered.
        • Technique and quickness has priority over weight used
    • Possible introduction of elastic band anchored weights duirng late preparation phase (Joy 2016)
      • Alternate workout days
        • Heavy Day: 5 Reps (once per week)
        • Fast Days (Weight+Bands): Loads based on Predicted 1RM calculated from 5RM from Heavy Day:
          • Week A: 50% Weight + 25% Band
          • Week B: 40% Weight + 30% Band
          • Move weight anchored by bands as fast as possible
          • 30-60 rest periods
  • Plyometrics
    • Progression
      • Throughout months, progress from lower to higher intensities
      • Perform specific warm up jump or throw (slower & shorter) directly before workout set(s)
      • Begin with single workout set and progress to additional sets throughout next few weeks
    • Less than 1 year training
      • Begin with Low Intensity and progress to Medium Intensity
      • Low impact hops and jumps
        • Cone Jumps, Quadrant Jumps, Inside-out Jumps
        • Jumping Rope, skipping, lateral line hop, standing broad jump, 90° jump turn
      • Medicine Ball Throws
        • MB seated twist (Russian twist), MB shoulder pullover (partner).
      • 40-75 reps per session
      • 2-3 min rest interval
    • After 1 year of weight training and weight training conditioning period
      • Progress to medium Intensity Plyometric Jumps
        • Low reactive jumps of 20-40 cm
        • Bounding, vertical jump, 180° Jump Turn
        • Simple Tumbling:
          • Forward Roll & Vertical Jump
          • Backward Roll into Handstand
          • Backward Roll into a Vertical Jump
      • Medium Intensity Plyometric Throws and Exercises
        • MB Twist (partner), MB Sit-up (partner), Lying Leg Raise (partner), MB wall chest throw
      • 40-75 reps per session
      • 3-6 min rest interval
    • After 2 years of weight training with strong squat
      • Progress to High Intensity Plyometric Jumps
        • Depth Jumps, Bounding, Single Leg Hops, Repeated Standing Long Jumps, Triple Jumps, Jumps over rope or high bench
      • High Intensity Plyometric Throws
        • MB Twist, MB wall shot (squat with overhead chest throw), MB squat jump, 360° jump turn, lying chest throw (power drop), MB overhead throw
      • 50-75 reps per session
      • 3-5 min rest interval

Speed & Reaction

  • Improvements highly dependent upon Strength & Power
  • Assess & correct technique
  • Train elements (Bompa 2015, pg 91-92)
    • Technique, Speed, Movement Time, Power, Concentration & Drive, Muscle Elasticity
    • 2-4 Forms of training per session
      • High Starts
        • 10-30m, 6-10 bouts, 3-4 min rest, 1-2x/week
        • Important for soccer, football, baseball, hockey, lacrosse, basketball
        • Emphasis in Late Preparatory
        • 1-2 days per week
      • Max Speed
        • 20-60, 4-8 bouts, 3-4 min rest, 2x/week
        • Emphasis in Early Competitive Phase
        • 1-2 days per week
      • Sports Specific Speed
        • Acceleration
          • 10-30m, 4-6 bouts, 2 min rest, 2-3x/wk
        • Deceleration
          • 10-20m, 4-6 bouts, 2 min rest, 2x/wk
        • Stop & Go
          • 10-20m, 4-8 bouts, 2 min rest, 2-3x/wk
        • Emphasis in Early Competitive
        • Perform twice a week
      • Accelerations with direction change
        • 10-30m, 4-8 bouts, 2 min rest, 2-3x/wk
        • Emphasis in Late Preparatory
        • 1-2 days per week
      • Ballistic, or Dynamic Training
        • 2-4 sets x 5-10 Reps, 1-2 min rest, 2-4x/wk
        • Throws, passes, kicks, hits, and jumps
        • Can be performed with motor skill training
    • Train exclusively in single session
      • Speed Endurance
        • 60-120m, 3-6 bouts, 4-5 min rest, 1-2x/week
        • Emphasis in competitive phase if position / sport requires it.
        • Important for football wide receivers (80m), baseball players (80m), track athletes
  • If sport or position requires short rest periods
    • Progressively decrease rest periods during competitive period

Agility

  • Improvements highly dependent upon Strength & Power
  • Begin drills Late Preparatory phase
  • Observe, listen, and assess
    • Foot contact, step height, body mechanics, push-off power
    • Provide feedback and correct technique
  • Suggested periodize agility program (Periodization Program Below) assumes background of 2-4 years strength, power, and agility training.
  • Initial focus on individual exercises
  • Performed at 85-95% max ability

Cardio / Endurance

  • Heart Rate monitoring
    • Children’s Max Heart Rate Calculation (7-17 years of age)
      • 208 - (0.7 x age)
      • Eg: 85% MHR for 16 year old
        • [208 - (0.7 x 16)] x 85% = 167 BPM
      • Can be used to prescribe and monitor exercise intensities
    • After early conditioning, Target Heart Rate should reach at least 90% of predicted maximum heart rate (Matos & Winsley 2007) at least 88% HRmax (above 170 bts·min-1) (Massicot and MacNab 1974)
    • Recovery: resume next bout once heart rate decreases to 120 beats per minute
  • Activities:
    • Tactical Drills for team sports
      • Short (30-60 sec)
        • 4-8 bouts with 3-5 min rest interval
      • Long (2-5 min)
        • Medium speed
        • 3-6 bouts with 2-3 min rest interval
    • Interval Training
      • Short (200-400 m)
        • 4-6 bouts with 3-5 min rest interval
      • Long (800 - 1600 m)
        • Medium speed
        • 2-4 bouts with 2-3 min rest interval
    • Long Distance Aerobics
      • 2000-5000 m

Flexibility

  • Dynamic warm-up before speed, agility, sports practice, or competition
  • Correct deficiencies in Functional Movement Screen (FMS) at end of workouts
  • Perform weight training exercises through full range of motion.

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